永續旅行加油站

  •  全球談永續的濫觴 -- Agenda 21 & 里約宣言

談到「永續」(Sustainability)的第一份全球聯合國文件,可以先了解1992年6月於巴西里約熱內盧(Rio de Janeiro) 舉行的「地球高峰會--聯合國環境與發展會議」 (United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, UNCED),由178個與會國家所認可簽訂的廿一世紀議程(Agenda 21)及里約宣言。
廿一世紀議程(Agenda 21)是一個行動計畫,目的在提供從1992年起至21世紀,一個能確保地球永續未來的藍圖。  
聯合國官方網站廿一世紀議程(Agenda 21)英文資料
里約宣言繁體中文文件
廿一世紀議程(Agenda 21)簡體中文目錄

 

  • 永續旅遊的Agneda 21實踐

依循廿一世紀議程(Agenda 21)的實踐目標,1995年10月於倫敦,世界旅遊組織(The World Tourism Organization, WTO)、世界旅遊及旅行業理事會(The World Travel and Tourism Council, WTTC)及聯合國地球議會(Earth Council)聯合發表「旅遊及旅行業者邁向環境的永續發展之廿一世紀議程」(Agenda 21 for the Travel and Tourism Industry : Toward Environmentally Sustainable Development),致力於改善旅遊業的產業環境,讓旅遊業發展更具永續性。1998年7月聯合國經濟暨社會委員會於第四十六次大會決議,訂定2002年為「國際生態旅遊年」,由世界旅遊組織及聯合國環境規劃署(United Nations Environment Program, UNEP)共同推動以生態旅遊為發展策略。世界旅遊組織( WTO) 
世界旅遊及旅行業理事會( WTTC) 
 

  • 學術界的永續行動

隨後1993年至2002年,學術界在永續旅遊的議題上,也陸續有所回應,如:1993年以倫敦為基地的永續旅行雜誌(Journal of Sustainable Tourism)在歐洲市場出版,報導永續旅遊相關的最新消息,也是該領域重要的資料庫;1998年美國科羅拉多大學Colorado University成立了永續旅遊中心(The Center for Sustainable Tourism);1999年環境合作委員會(Commission for Environmental Cooperation,CEC)與北美自由貿易協定(the North American Free Trade Agreement ,NAFTA)合力召集舉辦「北美自然保護區永續旅遊的對話」;2000年Dr Ginger Smith教授於喬治亞華盛頓大學發表論文名為「永續的環境與文化:千禧年的旅遊推廣」及「2000年國際論壇:千禧年的文化旅遊」;2001年國家公園諮詢董事會為鼓勵歷史及生物多樣性的保存及地域文化的永續,發表「21世紀國家公園的省思-永續準則」;2002年荷蘭舉辦「第一屆永續發展研討會- 全球旅遊產業對環境及社會的衝擊(First Annual Conference on sustainable Development : Environmental & Social Impact of Global Tourism Industry)」。
永續旅行雜誌 (Journal of Sustainable Tourism)
永續旅遊中心 (The Center for Sustainable Tourism)

 

  • 國家地理學會National Geograhic Society

國家地理學會(雜誌)在永續旅遊的議題上更佔有一重要角色,2002年Jonathan B. Tourtellot 在國家地理旅行家雜誌中首次提出「地理旅遊(Geotourism)」的概念,以地理特色的保存角度切入來詮釋永續旅遊。
2003年國家地理雜誌特別成立一個單位,並設置永續旅遊執行長來專門推動永續旅遊,2004年開始更出版了許多永續準則來檢視世界各地旅遊產業對於永續實踐的堅持,並持續關心與資助永續旅遊相關的研究計畫。
國家地理雜誌永續旅行地中心(Center for Sustainable Destination)
國家地理雜誌-永續旅行的最佳指南(Ultimate Guides to Sustainable Travel)
國家地理雜誌的「地理旅遊(Geotourism)」

 

  • 旅遊市場的永續行動

永續風潮逐漸地由學界影響業界,飯店旅宿業者為旅遊業界的要角,1999年4月ISdesigNET雜誌介紹了美國費城第一個環保的飯店-the Sheraton Rittenhouse Square Hotel;2001年永續旅行企業組織(Business Enterprises for sustainable travel,BEST)於紐約出版「永續旅行企業的實踐(Best Practices)」介紹企業成功實踐永續旅行的案例,永續旅行企業組織BEST成員Michael Seltzer正是旅人善行(Travel Philanthrophy) 這個名詞的創始者,他們在2001、2002年召集專家及業者進行相關討論會議,同時開始向業者及消費者推廣旅人善行的觀念;2002年國際永續旅行協會成立(Sustainable Travel International) ,致力於民間永續旅行相關議題的推廣,也持續致力旅遊業者的永續認證; 2003年由於永續旅行企業組織BEST結束經營,因此旅人善行推廣的業務轉由生態及永續發展中心(Center on Ecotourism and Sustainable Development ,CESD)負責,CESD接手後於 2004年開始舉辦第一次公開的旅人善行研討會,直至今日。 2004年雅買加舉行綠色飯店研討會,啟動旅遊業者對於綠色認證的行動。STI副執行長Peter表示當時他們必須不斷地拜訪業者進行溝通(永續推銷),成效有限; 反觀今日,永續旅行在歐美儼然已形成一個潮流,許多業者主動地參與永續行動,直到今日我們可以看到STI合作夥伴有可口可樂’富豪飯店’美國迪士尼’美國大陸航空等知名業者。  

國際永續旅行協會 (STI)
http://www.sustainabletravelinternational.org/
生態及永續發展中心(Center on Ecotourism and Sustainable Development ,CESD)
http://ecotourismcesd.org/home/index.html
規劃旅遊地的永續行程可參考下列網站:
http://green.travel/  
http://www.nationalgeographic.com/travel/sustainable/travelers.html
 
 

  • 減碳捐款相關機制認識

當我們開車、搭乘飛機、使用電力或是製造廢氣物都會製造二氧化碳的排放,這是導致全球暖化的因素之一。而再生能源、能源有效利用與造林計畫都是抵銷溫室效應氣體排放的行動策略。當消費者或企業組織對於上述這些計畫進行減碳捐款,就有機會可以降低地球二氧化碳的排放量,進而促成整個大氣系統的平衡。
 
但談到減碳捐款有時會讓人有種綠色詐財(Green Washing)的聯想,主要是因為台灣民眾對於全球減碳相關機制並不熟悉,其次是因為能源再生及有效利用與造林等計畫都需要時間,非立即見效;但這也反應了氣候變遷及臭氧層破洞所造成的災害也並非是可以立即補救的事實,而適當地了解減碳捐款單位的背景也是一個關心地球的起點,了解相關減碳捐助計畫是否通過聯合國或相關機制的認證,以及捐款有多少百分比會投入該計畫等。

聯合國-京都議定書下的機制:

  1. 清潔發展機制(Clean Development Mechanism, CDM)- 由京都議定書中已開發國家簽約國,協助開發中國家進行減碳計畫,用以換取減碳額度。這一類的計畫需經過審查聯合國組織下面CDM執行委員會審查。
  2. 共同減量(Joint Implement, JI)- 由京都議定書中兩簽約國間的合作計劃,透過較高的技術,協助另一簽約國來完成減碳工作,雙方可以享有同樣額度的減碳量。這類計劃需經過聯合國組織下JI 監督委員會審核。
  3. 排放交易(Emission Trading, ET)京都議定書中兩簽約國間進行減碳額度交易的機制。

 

  • 旅人善行 - 樂活旅行家的希望地圖

越來越多責任消費者和旅行業者選擇捐出金錢、時間、才能,以期保護他們造訪地方的文化與環境, 或為之帶來正面助益。這種自發性的社會運動也就是所謂的「旅者善行」( Travelers' Philanthropy)。不管是「旅者善行」或一般人常聽到的「旅遊善行」能夠藉由提供工作機會、教育與專業訊練機會、醫療照護、環境保護等方式幫助發展地方社區、保存生物多樣性、並為地方帶來社會文化與經濟方面的進步。

我們為什麼要鼓勵旅者善行?對於部份已開發國家以及更多的開發中國家,政府預算和國際援助的經費越來越少,但是每一位旅者都可以為我們所造訪的地方盡一分心力。我們將陸續提供有關國際永續旅遊協會相關的旅者善行計畫,更歡迎華文世界的朋友與我們一起來落實推動這些計畫。

因為在這個叫作地球的世界上,每個人都是旅者。

 

生態及永續發展中心旅人善行網站
http://www.travelersphilanthropy.org/index.html

參考資料:

  1. 國際永續旅行協會網站 (Sustainable Travel International)
  2. Managing Sustainable Tourism: A Legacy for the Future(2006,David Edgell) 

 

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